Cultural illusions



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Experts associate cultural illusions with distortions of the picture of life, which is formed in the mind of a person by the everyday prejudices existing around him, the peculiarities of the culture existing in the area of ​​his residence, and the activities of all kinds of political strategists.

Psychologists call one of the main features of a mature person (mature in a personal sense) his ability to be completely comfortable in solitude. The psychologically non-prejudiced state of loneliness implies a normal psychologically formed awareness of one's I, and the boundaries of this concept, that is, the real ability to distinguish between "oneself" and "not oneself", and, most importantly, the ability to accept and realize "oneself" in reality without compensating for loneliness (complementary to existence) objects.

M. Mahler established that for the first time a person becomes acquainted with the experience of his own loneliness in early childhood, which usually occurs at the end of the first or the beginning of the second year of his life. This occurs at a time when the child begins to realize his existence, separate from his mother, as well as his own framework, that is, the limitation of his own capabilities (in psychology, this is called "psychological birth").

In cases where acquaintance and awareness of reality was associated with unpleasant and traumatic moments for the psyche, a person in the future will be little capable of living alone, psychologists assume that this is due to the fact that reality has intruded into the boundaries of his "I" prematurely.

Such psychological trauma can occur even in infancy, if the child was exposed to excessive stimulation from the outside in the very first days and weeks of his life, that is, in the very period when babies are naturally autistic. In the future, for such a person, the world can accept (for his consciousness) the quality of unpredictability. These people do not receive from childhood experience that insures their illusion of perception of the environment.

And without such a feeling of the world, loneliness is unbearable for a person, he is accompanied by a feeling of anxiety, emptiness in his soul and a feeling of abandonment. The experience of illusions in childhood gives a person confidence in adequate perception in adulthood, fantasy childhood illusions are that sphere of human consciousness, which in the future is filled with cultural illusions of various origins - religion, art, etc. If there is no competent replacement of these concepts, then children's illusions can come alcohol or drugs (like a subconscious desire to leave the world, but not be left alone).

In a way, all human culture is a product of the realm of illusion (Spengler). Civilization belongs to the realm of reality (achievements of science, production, modern technologies). It is culture that is the very insurance "belt" that warns the human mind from the trauma of perception. Traditions, moral values, faith, art - all this is determined internally by a person's culture. It is necessary to clearly separate, culture "is" inside a person, and civilization exists outside the human personal "I".

Nietzsche believed that in the 20th century, contradictions began between culture and civilization, reality and illusion, and Winnicott confirmed that when faced with an unattractive reality, humanity began to lose illusion. The peoples of the north of Russia suffered the most, whose perception of life was always closer to that of children, and widespread alcoholism took the place of the taken away cultural illusions (traditions, ancestral spirits).

The space of consciousness, not occupied by cultural illusions, is filled with depression, psychosomatic states are the so-called diseases of psychological loneliness, which are based on inner emptiness. Cultural differences that lie in the processes of people's perception of the world around them determine all interethnic conflicts without exception, so cultural illusions created by a person lie in the plane of his perception of events and phenomena, depending on the cultural traditions that have developed in the environment of his residence. People of different cultures have different ways of assimilating, perceiving and interpreting phenomena and objects.

Kuprin very vividly described this difference in cultural illusions in his fairy tale "Blue Star" by the example of the tribe's perception of external beauty, living cut off from the civilized world, they considered their own ugliness to be beauty and vice versa. People of different races perceive people of a different race differently, for them they all seem to be the same person.

An experiment conducted by American psychologists was aimed at the perception of Hindu, American and Muslim children living in India, who evoke associations with either punishment or praise and reward. Children of Hindus and Muslims were more likely to perceive the persons who aroused in them the association of punishment, while the Americans perceived praise and awards.

The issue of differences in the perception of illusions in different cultures is very difficult, since personal or cultural illusions are subjective concepts. Psychologists from different countries have carried out a large number of cross-cultural studies, using for their research the classic Mueller-Lyer illusion - an optical illusion that occurs when observing segments framed by arrows. The illusion consists in the perception of the segment framed by arrows with "points", shorter than the segment framed by arrows with "tails".

Until now, the nature of this illusion has not yet been fully determined. Human cultural illusion. who lived all his life in a country dominated by the architecture of the "circle", for example the Zulu (a tribe in Africa) is completely different from the illusion created in the minds of an American or a European, since the Zulu have round houses, rounded doors, fields are plowed up in semicircles.

In an experiment conducted with the Zulu, psychologists have revealed that they perceive both segments of the same length in the Mueller-Lyer illusion. That is, the concept of cultural illusion does not just exist, but dominates the perceptions of people from different countries and cultures.

Representatives of different cultures are characterized by different motivations in the perception of certain objects, and different ways of perception, that is, cultural illusions that arise in a person's consciousness, are more dependent on the cultural environment and education of a person.

To date, the concept of the connection between illusions and culture has been little studied, the only thing that all psychologists from different countries agree on is in connection with cultural effects with the paradigms of optical illusion, there is a connection between the processes of perception in various life situations and optical illusions in people belonging to different cultures. In addition, today scientists are conducting research in the field of studying the connection of cultural illusions with the inner (personal) culture of a person.

The fact is that culture has a direct impact on the creation of illusory images, since people with different upbringing and education perceive, process and transform any information they receive from the same source in different ways. Cognition means in psychological terms a set of mental processes by means of which sensory sensations, information received at the sensory level, are converted into knowledge.

These processes consist of perception, rational thinking and reasoning, language, memory, problem solving, decision making, etc. The main processes that determine cultural illusions are categorization and, as a result, the formation of concepts, memory, recognition of faces, the possibility of solving problems, inclination to decision-making and mental creativity.

Issues of perception, cognition, and consciousness underlie most psychological inferences, and cultural differences in these processes suggest different levels of psychology that are culturally influenced. And since a person's consciousness is able to reflect only his subjective feeling of surrounding objects or phenomena, then people are sure that everyone's consciousness is the same, although in reality there are serious cultural and personal, individual differences.


Watch the video: Amazing Optical Illusions


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