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Cities have been a testament to what civilization has achieved for centuries. With the development of science and technology, man has already learned how to create dwellings for himself, uniting with his own kind.
In their cities, people show all their skill, imagination and desire to be successful. There, people can fully realize their social desires and create the greatest creations of civilization. Among its pearls one can safely mention Paris, London, New York, Rome ...
However, often people wanted to create absolutely fantastic cities that would stand out even among the best. Efficiency, meanwhile, often turned into a pipe dream. Some cities that were meant to be great were never built. But you can visit them virtually, imagining what they could become.
Dongtan. Construction of this city began in China in 2005, but recently it became known that the project was closed. The result can be called expected, since in a rapidly growing country with environmental problems, they suddenly decided to create an eco-city. It was decided to create it on an island in the middle of the Yangtze River with an area of two Manhattan and not far from Shanghai. Dongtan had a beautiful idea - to create a different level of interaction between man and nature. After all, the massive outflow of villagers to cities has become a big problem for China - the environment has deteriorated. It was in the country that projects of new cities began to appear that would help preserve nature. The most famous and ambitious of them was Dongtan. According to the plans, the city was supposed to provide itself with electricity on its own. For this, only natural sources had to be used - the sun, wind, biofuel. All the few public transport vehicles were also supposed to be environmentally friendly, running on hydrogen fuel. It would be fashionable to ride a bike or walk here. According to the plan, by 2010 the first part of the city was to be opened, 10 thousand people would already live there. By 2050, the population should have been half a million. The city could become a model for a "green" society for the whole world, but suddenly problems arose. It was not clear how exactly other cities would react to the benefits provided to Dongtan. And the construction cost of 1.3 billion scared off the authorities. The decisive straw was the arrest of the mayor of Shanghai, the most important supporter of the project, for fraud. The city was left without funding, the plans were quickly buried in museums and architectural offices. So Asia was left without a green city of the future.
Triton City. Throughout his life, Buckminster Fuller wondered about the long-term survival of humanity on Earth. This scientist and philosopher looked far into the future, reminding them that the environment must be protected. In 1960 Fuller presented an ambitious and daring project. He invented the creation of the huge city of Triton. This floating utopian creature was supposed to accommodate 5,000 people. The purpose of creating such a gigantic city on water was to encourage people to be careful about the available natural resources and save energy. The Japanese government even commissioned a scientist to design this floating city in the waters of Tokyo Bay. Even the US Urban Development Department was interested in Triton's ideas, which supported this idea. According to the project, the city was completely protected from the tsunami, the water necessary for life was obtained through desalination. Each resident received his own personal space, which was equipped with the necessary sound insulation for complete comfort. The city was to receive everything necessary for a full life - entertainment and recreation areas, educational institutions. Fuller calculated that Triton's low maintenance costs would inevitably lead to a high standard of living in the city. The American Navy also considered the project. Then Baltimore showed interest in locating a unique city on its shores. But at this time, inopportunely there was a change of power in the city and in the country, which led to the suspension of the project. So it was never implemented. Today, people still created some of the components of Triton - an airport was erected in Osaka on the artificial island of Kensei. However, these are all just minor details compared to what the fantastic island city was supposed to be.
Broadacre. Work on this city was first started by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1934. This architect has earned the fame of one of the most famous in the history of mankind. Unsurprisingly, he contemplated innovative approaches to housing. Broadacre was to be a city built from scratch. The main idea of the project was to combine the traditional urban image with the agricultural direction. The architect wanted each resident to have his own fig tree and vine, and all the necessary fruits and vegetables were grown right next to the house on a personal land plot. This should lead to equality of all social classes. Any centralization by Wright was simply rejected, which is why, according to the project, the city was supposed to become spacious, wide and stretched. Such a structure would markedly distinguish Broadacre from other cities. Here factories, offices and houses had to be separated from each other by large parks with manicured meadows and trees. It is no coincidence that the project itself was called “the city of wide space”. The main condition for the existence of the city was to be cleanliness. The architect believed that only light industry should exist in Broadacre, there should not be any communications outside - everything had to be buried in the ground. But such a bold project immediately found many opponents. Urban planners considered it impossible to use minimal transport. As a result, Wright's dreams remained unrealizable. A reminder of the fantastic city can only serve as a suburban community, numerous on the planet.
Disney World. In fact, this is not quite a city in its usual sense. However, anyone who has visited the Disney territory will say that this is a real state, living by its own rules. Meanwhile, many Disney projects have remained unrealized or partially created in various parts of the world. For example, a park of myths never appeared here, in which the heroes of Ancient Greece and Rome would have been. I would like to see the Disney Port, the American version of the Tokyo DisneySea. There are also no parks with a variety of interesting themes - the Mediterranean, Persia, Venice or Asia. Many dreamed of creating a Disney America patriotic park in Virginia. Although some of Jules Verne's ideas were implemented in the Paris branch, the whole world of adventure in the spirit of this author remained just a project. Children are waiting for the dark kingdom too. In this world of shadows, one could find the main villains from cartoons. After all, if the magic kingdom is good, why shouldn't its opposite appear? In Tokyo, the world of modern technology has not yet been built. It was planned to present all the latest discoveries in the field of science and technology to children and adults, one could imagine the city of the future. The kingdom of snow was not created in Northern California. Ski paradise in the form of a glacial valley remained only on paper. As you can see, Disney's amusement parks had many projects that were never built. They remained only in plans, not being born for many reasons. But the fantastic fairytale city could become even more interesting!
Slumless. Not everyone would like this city. After all, it was planned that there would be no tobacco smoke in it! Sir Ebenezer Howard became the founder of the garden city movement. He came up with the idea that such places should become a place for recreation in a natural environment, away from the annoying dust, dirt, smog of industrial cities. Howard personally spearheaded the creation of several of these garden cities in England. But the main idea of the enthusiast was Slamless. There should have been no tobacco smoke in this city at all. Alas, this idea never came to fruition. An interesting project was presented in the form of a hand-drawn diagram. It is not easy to understand it, but it is quite possible even for an uninitiated person. Inside the large circle is the main city, and around it are six small garden cities. There is a water channel around each of them. All six man-made rivers are connected to one big one. There are also direct canals that run through the garden cities. All water arms converge in the central city. Railways are also laid along the canals. It was on them that it was planned to carry out communication between cities. Howard even planned to build a farm, swimming pools, an educational college with an emphasis on agriculture, cemeteries, a mental hospital, and a homeless shelter. But the project did not receive any financial support, and remained a picture on paper.
California. Yes, such a state and area really exists. But the city with that name, as originally planned, remained a dream. It was created by Nat Mendelssohn, who worked as an architect. He dreamed of creating a city no less magnificent than Los Angeles. For his project, Nat decided to use an area of 320 square kilometers in the heart of the California Desert. It was planned to create a huge park with an artificial lake there. Now you can look at the fruits of Mendelssohn's work, it even seems that he has almost achieved his plan. Only in the city there is no main thing - houses. The place turned out to be abandoned, with hundreds of deserted intersections and streets. If you look at the city from above, it will look like some kind of magic circles that for some reason appeared in the middle of the desert. Mendelssohn built on an idea popular with most developers at the time. He wanted to buy a large plot of land, divide it into plots and sell it to families for private ownership. But the plan fell through, and as a result, the streets were never filled with life in half a century. After all, the architect did not take into account the many problems associated with the construction of a city in this place. One of the most important was the rather high requirements for buyers and the set price for the land. In addition, sandstorms often occurred in the desert, which also scared off potential customers. True, the city cannot be considered completely deserted. Today it is home to about 14 thousand people. But they occupy only a tiny part of this huge labyrinth in the desert. Alas, the city of California has not been able to compare in its grandeur with Los Angeles, as Mendelssohn wanted it.
Pilot City Minnesota. The friendship between the University of Minnesota and the US Federal Government resulted in the emergence of this unusual city in 1960. It was planned that city experts could conduct their experiments and assessments here. The name of the city itself suggests that some experimental experiments will be carried out here, which have not yet been carried out on such a scale. The city should have been home to a quarter of a million people. He had to occupy an open area - parks, farms, wild fields. Only 1/6 of the entire area of the city was to be paved, and part of it was generally planned to be hidden under a geodesic dome. According to the plans, there should be no cars in Minnesota - they should be left in parking lots outside the experimental zone. One could get to the city center on moving paths. This automated highway system looked very advanced. But the main difference between the city and the rest was the complete absence of schools in it! The creators of the city counted. That the practice of continuous self-education throughout life will be useful. Everyone should be both a student and a teacher at the same time. And the best education should have been social contacts, communication, participation in groups, clubs, and just observation. But the innovative project was not destined to take place due to funding problems, as well as complicated logistics.
The new capital of the world is Welthauptstadt. Hitler planned that the city of Welthauptstadt should become the pride of the Third Reich. The proud dictator believed that it was Germany that was assigned the role of a European and even a world center. The new capital was to appear on the site of the rebuilt Berlin. Plans to start a large-scale reconstruction could have begun even before the outbreak of World War II. Hitler's goal was simple - the new city was to outshine in its brilliance and quality of life such world centers as Paris, London, New York. According to large-scale plans, a stadium for 400 thousand people was to appear in the city. The huge office was to receive a hall twice as long as the Palace of Versailles. The Arc de Triomphe in the capital was supposed to be much larger than that in Paris. The stately building of the government was to appear in a giant open area. The Volkshalle People's Hall was to rise in the center of the new city. This building was to be built in the form of a dome, and Hitler personally took part in its design. If the Hall's project were destined to materialize, it would be the largest enclosed space in the world today. Although the war began earlier than the construction itself could begin, by that time all technical aspects had already been resolved, and the necessary land had been purchased. According to Hitler's plan, his conquests were to end quickly, and with them the construction of his city, Welthauptstadt, would be completed by 1950. But the collapse of the Nazi regime by Soviet and allied troops nullified all Hitler's plans to create a great city.
Steward's Madness. When America acquired Alaska from Russia, US Secretary of State William Steward came up with an original idea. He decided to create a new city right across the bay. The project was named "Steward's Madness" in honor of its creator. The new city was to become inimitable and unique, we are not like anything else. The city was decided to be covered with a huge glass dome. Such a solution would allow full control of the local climate. The city was supposed to accommodate 400 thousand people, there would be a place for schools, sports arenas, alleys and an oil center. Even the transport problem was supposed to be solved in an innovative way. People had to move on moving footpaths, and it would be possible to get to neighboring Anchorage by aerial cable car. To give people a sense of the open space, it was planned to create large windows in the dome, while the climate control would remain unchanged. There would be no cars here, because the city is a place for people to live, not cars. It was planned to extract the electricity necessary for existence with the help of natural gas. In the future, the Steward even dreamed of launching a subway under the bay. However, the project failed - after all, it did not provide for the issues of rent payments for land. And from a practical point of view, it was too fantastic.
Intoxicating city. And this idea is not at all a joke, invented only to attract attention. About half a century ago, one man created such a dream, after which he fought hard to make it come true. He came up with a certain resort town, which lives only by the culture of drinking.Alcohol should become the most beloved and revered drink here. Is it any wonder that the creator himself, Mel Johnson, loved to drink? In his youth, he traveled all over the world, visiting Dublin, Havana, Barcelona, Paris, New Orleans, New York and Rio de Janeiro. But the man could not find his place, he constantly lacked something. At the same time, he was sufficiently educated, graduated from Harvard and at one time served in the army. After the end of World War II, the idea of creating the Intoxicating City was finally formed in Johnson's head. There would be many nightclubs and bars, but they would all have their own theme. Johnson was meticulous in detail, so he laid out all his dreams in detail. Even the names of the streets in the city would be somehow associated with alcohol - Bourbon Boulevard, Gina Lane and Hangover Street. To make it easier for drunk people to get home or to the next bar, it was planned to create an electric transportation system in the form of a moving sidewalk. Johnson wanted to produce almost all alcohol in the city itself, this would be a very profitable step. After all, bars and wine shops had to work around the clock every day. In the Khmelny city, any restrictions on alcohol consumption were to be lifted, including in banks and churches. The city had to introduce its own currency - intoxicated money. The local police were supposed not to punish the drinking people, but, on the contrary, to help them. Johnson decided that such a place would certainly have its own news service. Irresponsible artists and artists were supposed to become permanent residents of the Khmelny city, but children should even be banned from entering here. In the center of the city, it was planned to erect a tall building in the form of a glass with a martini. There Johnson planned to locate his home and headquarters. The enthusiast has already chosen the territory to start the construction. After the death of his father, Johnson inherited a fairly decent amount. But even this was not enough to start the project. As a result, Johnson began to run an active advertising campaign, advertising the future city. He handed out leaflets to passers-by with the emblem of the future alcoholic capital, began to produce bags and matches with the appropriate symbols. Sometimes Johnson came to the conclusion that now he had enough money and set a preliminary date for the opening of the city. But most simply didn’t take the alcoholic dreamer’s ideas seriously. The press laughed at such plans with might and main, also sharply criticizing them. As a result, Johnson's dream finally collapsed, and he himself was hospitalized with all the signs of schizophrenia. Soon the ideologist of the Intoxicating City died.